Peripheral nervous system

peripheral nervous system disorders

In the lumbar and sacral region, the spinal nerve roots travel within the dural sac and they travel below the level of L2 as the cauda equina. The efferent nerves, from the Latin "efferre" that means "to bring away from", contain efferent neurons that transmit the signals originating in the central nervous system to the organs and muscles, and put into action the orders from the brain.

Autonomic Nervous System Figure The efferent nerves of the autonomic visceral nervous system control the visceral functions of the body.

Peripheral nervous system

This system consists of long preganglionic neurones and short post ganglionic neurones. Peripheral nerve disorders can affect. These actions are most apparent when the body is faced with stressful situations. The impulse crosses from the nerve cell in the spinal cord to the opposite side of the spinal cord. Insulating a Nerve Fiber Most nerve fibers inside and outside the brain are wrapped with many layers of tissue composed of a fat lipoprotein called myelin. These nerves extend from the central nervous system to the outermost areas of the body. The peripheral nervous system itself is divided into two parts: The somatic nervous system Each of these components plays a critical role in how the peripheral nervous system operates.

Healthy Aging What exactly is the peripheral nervous system and what role does it play in the body? Email Address There was an error. Effects of acetylcholine release on target organs include slowing of heart rate, lowered blood pressure, and stimulation of digestion.

Peripheral nervous system components

The Somatic Nervous System The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the central nervous system. These motor neurons allow us to take physical action in response to stimuli in the environment. Postganglionic neurons then release norepinephrine onto target organs. Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter released at these synapses. Summary The peripheral nervous system contains both the autonomic and sensory-somatic nervous systems. The impetus to move a muscle may originate with the senses. Somatic nervous system[ edit ] See also: List of nerves of the human body The somatic system includes the sensory nervous system and the somatosensory system and consists of sensory nerves and somatic nerves, and many nerves which hold both functions. When action is needed, the sympathetic system will trigger a response by speeding up the heart rate, increasing breathing rate, increasing blood flow to muscles, activating sweat secretion, and dilating the pupils. Spinal nerve C1 is called the suboccipital nerve , which provides motor innervation to muscles at the base of the skull. In some cases, these nerves are very small but some nerve bundles are so large that they can be easily seen by the human eye.

Exercises Which of the following statements is false? The nervous system is classified into the central and peripheral nervous system.

what is the peripheral nervous system made up of

Afferent nerves exist in both the somatic and autonomic nervous systems as both can use sensory signals to alter their activity. It is important to note that this method creates a problem when naming the spinal nerve root between C7 and T1 so it is called spinal nerve root C8.

Peripheral nervous system diagram

Each system contains afferent and efferent components. The sensory-somatic nervous system is made of cranial and spinal nerves that transmit sensory information from skin and muscle to the CNS and motor commands from the CNS to the muscles. When the myelin sheath is damaged, nerves do not conduct electrical impulses normally. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord and extend to other parts of the body including muscles and organs. These neurons are usually stimulated by interneurons within the spinal cord but are sometimes directly stimulated by sensory neurons. For example, motor neurons efferent neurons contact the skeletal muscles to execute the voluntary movement of raising your arm and wiggling your hand about. The parasympathetic pathway is responsible for resting the body, while the sympathetic pathway is responsible for preparing for an emergency. The somatic nervous system is under voluntary control, and transmits signals from the brain to end organs such as muscle s. This system is further divided into two branches: The sympathetic system regulates the flight-or-fight response. In this article, we will discuss the peripheral nervous system, its divisions and its functions. The autonomic nervous system provides unconscious control over visceral functions and has two divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Other cranial nerves contain a mix of sensory and motor fibers. When action is needed, the sympathetic system will trigger a response by speeding up the heart rate, increasing breathing rate, increasing blood flow to muscles, activating sweat secretion, and dilating the pupils. These motor neurons allow us to take physical action in response to stimuli in the environment.

Summary The peripheral nervous system contains both the autonomic and sensory-somatic nervous systems.

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The Peripheral Nervous System