Candidates make use of advertising to generate positive feelings among the elec- torate about their own qualities or to denigrate their opponents.
Research Question 1: Will men experience significantly higher levels of information efficacy after political advertising exposure than women? Candidate evaluations were also measured using a item semantic differential scale3 developed for measuring candidate image and used for nearly four decades as a measure of candidate image Kaid, However, women showed somewhat lower levels of political information efficacy than men.
Agenda-setting and campaign advertising in congressional elections.
Journal of Advertising Research, 36, However, Kaid, McKinney, and Tedesco found young voters were more cynical after exposure to political spots in the campaign. Just, M.Political advertising and information seeking: Comparing exposure via traditional and Internet channels. Considering the mixed results on image and issue learning, the candidate ads seemed to have a greater influence in this area. West, D. Experiments took place at the same time in all 13 locations, 1 week before the November Election Day. Groenendyk, E. Videostyle and the effects of the presidential campaign advertising. A possible reason for this is the tra- ditional masculine qualities of politics and the recent emergence of women in politics. Bush had more to gain if he ran on his image and personal qualities than if he emphasized the Iraq war or the economy. Responses to Kerry were similar in the overall sample with a Political Behavior, 16 1 , Kahn, K. They might happen when voters need a question answered fast, like "how to caucus in Iowa. Christ, W. Major national survey shows increased promise, new strategies for increasing youth vote. Declare Yourself. Participants were undergraduate students from 13 different universities1 in the United States.
Using the semantic differential scale of 12 adjectives to evaluate the candidates, young respondents gave Bush a composite mean rating of